Baptist vs Catholic Doctrine

by | Jun 25, 2023 | Baptist, Catholic | 0 comments

You may know that Baptists are protestants which means they are quite different in doctrine from the Catholics. But not all protestants believe in the same things and that is why there are so many denominations today. So what exactly does the Baptist doctrine teach and how does it differ from Catholic doctrine?

The best way to answer this question is to look at the common areas of difference between the two denominations. These are:

  • Scripture and authority
  • Salvation and grace
  • Sacraments and rituals
  • Church structure and
  • Worship and rituals. 

Let is take a closer look at each of these below:

Scripture and Authority:

According to Baptist doctrine, the scripture is inspired by God and is, therefore, the final authority on doctrine and any issues in the Christian faith. Every believer is also encouraged to study the Bible with the help of the Holy Spirit. This is because Baptists believe in the priesthood of every believer as opposed to Catholics who believe that only the chosen and ordained are priests. In the catholic church, the priests are the only mediators between man and God and they do this via the different sacraments. 

Just like the Baptists, Catholics also believe in the authority of the Scripture. However, they do not view it as the sole authority. Catholics have a sacred tradition that is an amalgamation of the practices, teachings, and interpretations that have been handed down by church leaders. They also believe the pope has divine authority to make pronouncements on church doctrine. Even though Catholics hold God’s word in high regard, its interpretation and application are done through the lens of sacred tradition. 

Salvation and Grace

Baptist doctrine teaches that salvation comes only by grace through faith in the Lord Jesus. Salvation is viewed as personal which means an individual has to make a personal decision to accept Christ and thereafter to work out their salvation as per the dictates of scripture. Salvation is also believed to be a free gift that cannot be earned via rituals or good deeds.

Just like Baptists, Catholics also believe in salvation by God’s grace. However, the Catholics also believe that salvation is attained by a mixture of both faith and works. On one hand, one has to have faith in Jesus Christ but on the other, they must fulfill certain deeds to guarantee salvation. For Catholics, salvation is a journey that one has to walk as long as they are alive. 

Catholics view baptism as a sacrament that cleanses a person from original sin and incorporates them into the Church, which they see as the mystical body of Christ. Baptism is seen as necessary for salvation, and it can be administered to both infants and adults. This is a sharp contrast to the Baptists who believe that Baptism should only be for adults and that baptism can only be by immersion in water. 

Sacraments and Rituals

Baptists have two main sacraments – the Lord’s table (also known as communion or Eucharist), and water baptism. In Baptist dogma, baptism is only for the believers who have a personal relationship with Christ. Baptism by immersion is practiced as a symbol of Christ’s death, burial, and resurrection. Baptism is believed to be an outward expression of one’s inner faith as well as a sign of a personal commitment to salvation.  

Baptists also observe the Lord’s Supper in memory of Christ’s death on the cross. This ritual is done by taking bread and wine (or grape juice) where the bread represents Christ’s body and the wine represents Christ’s blood. Baptists teach that communion is a time of spiritual renewal, personal reflection as well as fellowship with brethren. 

Catholics have more intricate rituals and sacraments. For starters, they recognize seven important sacraments namely: Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Confession, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders, and Matrimony.

One of the big differences in Baptism between Catholics and Baptists is that Catholics not only administer baptism to adults but infants as well. Baptism is believed to cleanse the individual from sin and incorporate them into the church. 

Another important difference is in the sacrament of the Eucharist. Even though the symbolism is somewhat similar, Catholics also believe in the doctrine of transubstantiation. This doctrine states that the bread and wine that are used for the Holy Communion are actually transformed in the body and blood of Christ. Baptists do not believe this and only view the bread and wine as symbols. 

Church Structure and Leadership:

Baptists believe in congregational polity. This means that the different congregations are allowed to be autonomous. They do not have a centralized priesthood or a hierarchical leadership structure. In Baptist congregations, the members of the church are allowed to have a say on governance, worship as well as matters of doctrine in their church. The leaders of the church are also elected by the church members. 

Even though Baptist churches are autonomous, they often form associations, fellowships, and conventions that bring them together. However, these initiatives are voluntary and not every Baptist church is expected to participate. As such, these associations do not have authority over local churches. 

Unlike the Baptists, Catholics adopt a hierarchical stricture with the pope at the top of the hierarchy as the overall head of the church. Cardinals server directly under the pope followed by Bishops, Priests, and finally deacons. Additionally, the Catholics recognize various religious orders such as friars, nuns, and monks who live in communities to commit themselves to a certain religious way of life. 

Worship and Liturgy

Baptists do not have a standardized style of worship. The autonomous congregations are allowed to plan their services as they deem fit. That said, there are some common characteristics with all Baptist services. For starters, Baptists encourage congregational participation in worship. Both spontaneous and scripted prayers can be used depending on the congregation. The sermon is usually the central focus of the service and other rituals may also be included e.g. holy communion, Baptism, etc. 

Catholics have a highly structured style of worship that is guided by the catholic liturgical books. Unlike the Baptist churches which focus more on the sermon, the central part of a catholic mass is the Eucharist. Catholic liturgy follows a carefully structured and ritualistic approach, aiming to create a sense of reverence, awe, and continuity with the Church’s tradition throughout the centuries.

The table below gives a quick summary of the main differences between Catholics and baptists:

Baptist DoctrineCatholic Doctrine
Scripture and AuthorityScripture is inspired by God and it is the final authority on doctrine. Scripture is authoritative, but it is not the sole authority. Sacred tradition is also an important authority in determining doctrine as well as interpreting scripture. 
Salvation and GraceWe are saved by grace through faith. Salvation is a free gift and it cannot be earned. Faith and good deeds contribute to salvation. 
Sacraments and RitualsBaptism and the Lord’s table are the only sacraments observedSeven sacraments are observed namely: Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Confession, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders, and Matrimony.
Church StructureCongregational polity, allowing church autonomy.Hierarchical structure with the pope as the overall head of the church.


To sum it up, the Batpist and Catholic doctrines are quite diverse. Unlike other protestants like Methodists and Lutherans who are not too far from catholic doctrine, the Baptist’s doctrine is almost opposite of that Catholics believe. That said, they both belive in the same foundational truths like the trinity, the eucharist, baptism, etc. What makes them different is how they approach these truths. 

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About: Ronie

Ronnie Amaya has been actively involved in ministry since his high school and university days where he served as a Christian union leader. After graduation, he worked as an itinerary minister preaching in Schools, Universities, Street Evangelizations, and Churches. In 2018, he led a team in planting a new church in Nairobi, Kenya where he is currently serving as the lead pastor.
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Ronnie Amaya has been actively involved in ministry since his high school and university days where he served as a Christian union leader. After graduation, he worked as an itinerary minister preaching in Schools, Universities, Street Evangelizations, and Churches. In 2018, he led a team in planting a new church in Nairobi, Kenya where he is currently serving as the lead pastor.

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